The Federalist Papers were composed of essays written by three of the Constitution's framers and ratifiers: Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury; John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the United States; and James Madison, father of the Constitution, author of the Bill of Rights, and fourth President of the United States. The series was published anonymously under the pen name "Publius," in New York newspapers during the years 1787 and 1788 to persuade undecided New York state voters to ratify the new Constitution of the United States. Considered a keystone of American democracy, some of the more famous articles dealt with: Dangers from foreign arms and influence; dangers from dissensions between the states. The Union as a safeguard against domestic faction and insurrection. The need for a federal government able to raise revenues through taxation. The power of Congress to regulate the election of members; the creation of an electoral college. The power of the Senate to sit as a court for Impeachments; the objectives and powers of the judiciary. An enduring classic of political philosophy and a milestone in political science, Thomas Jefferson hailed The Federalist Papers as the best commentary ever written about the principles of government.